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A review of maternal and child health sustainable development goals

sustainable development goals

A review of maternal and child health sustainable development goals

Health is the core indicator of sustainable development. Affordability, universality and quality are the key attributes of any healthcare system. Poor health effects all-round growth of the nation by limiting economic opportunities thus leading to poverty within communities. In addition, lack of proper access to healthcare continues to remain the major challenge of the healthcare systems. Especially, women across the world lack access to sexual and reproductive healthcare and as a result thousands of new HIV/AIDS cases are reported each day. Though a remarkable success has been achieved in providing access to clean water and sanitation and combating the spread of various communicable and non-communicable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, polio and HIV/AIDS, there exists a constant need to address many persistent and emerging health issues.
In order to take forward the progress that has been made towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and accomplish what was not done by 2015, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been announced by the United Nations General Assembly in late 2015. The Agenda for sustainable development, as described by the United Nations, is ‘’a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity’’. The SDGs are applicable to all countries and primarily focus to address the gaps and geographical inequalities that persist in services provided by the MDGs. For example, highest maternal mortality ratio of 546 per 100000 live births has been recorded in sub-Saharan Africa which is extremely high as compared to that in developed regions with just 12 per 100000 live births.
Having been reinforced to be achieved by 2030, the SGDs have 17 goals categorized into five areas People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership, of which only goal number 3 is health focussed with maternal and child health playing a central role. SDG 3 ensures healthy lives and promotes well-being for all at all ages with 13 associated targets. Among the other agendas of the targets are nutrition, disability, childhood development, minimizing violence against women and addressing forced marriages.

Targets For Sustainable Development Goal 3

  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
  • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
  • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
  • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
  • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
  • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
  • Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
  • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
  • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training, and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in the least developed countries and small island developing States
  • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.

It has been estimated that approximately 1.6 million mothers and 10.2 million children lives could be saved if the targets are reached as planned. It is the need of the hour to impart individuals with knowledge and skills to attain improved health in low, middle and high income countries by addressing various public health issues and get acquainted with the practical interventions at the community level.
James Lind Institute provides various programs in Public Health and Tropical Medicine to promote health and improve life-spans across various countries and age groups. The programs in this category include:

Technologically advanced e-campus of James Lind Institute (JLI) acts as a contemporary substitute for standard classroom programs. In addition, JLI offers personalized online activities through an Online Campus Tutoring Center, mock drills, tutoring and freelancing opportunities.
For more information please visit: https://www.jliedu.com/

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