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Health Problems in Children

Maternal and Child Health

Health Problems in Children

Persistent lack of child health services effects early physical or mental health in children and long term adult outcomes. The objective to improve infant and child health lies in addressing a wide range of behavioural conditions and health indicators that affect the wellbeing and quality of life among children. Well planned child health programmes and intervention coverage can improve and manage child health and reduce deaths.

Child health issues

Chronic childhood health problems of asthma, obesity, mental and behavioural problems are on the rise. Health risks of preterm birth, birth asphyxia and infectionsexits among newborns. Diarrhoea, malaria, HIV and pneumonia are a leading cause of sickness and death among children in developing countries. Other major challenges among children include autism spectrum disorders, learning disorders, Asperger syndrome, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and depression disorders. The main factors implicated in child deaths due to pneumonia and other severe infections, premature deaths, malaria, birth asphyxia and trauma in developing countries are poor sanitation and nutritional habits; zinc, iron and iodine deficiencies and suboptimal breastfeeding patterns.Infant mortality is high and life expectancy is low due to shortages of food and infectious illnesses.

Child health programs

Child healthcare services to enrol children through parents; physical examinations and health screenings; immunizations programs; information on child safety, growth and social development are targeted among low-income, uninsured, or underinsured families. Health risks in newborns can be minimized by quality care during and post pregnancy; safe delivery by a skilled birth attendant; strong neonatal care and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing malnutrition and indoor air pollution along with promoting vaccination and breastfeeding is essential in preventing pneumonia. Treating sick children with oral rehydration salts combined with zinc supplements is safe and cost-effective in saving lives. Preventing malaria transmission increases child survival while safer delivery of anti-retrovirals and feeding practices prevents HIV infections by mother-to-child transmission. Child death is preventable through practical and low-cost interventions; improving child health by delivery of integrated and effective care for healthy pregnancy, child-birth and child care.
Key to prevention and delivery of quality care involves investment in strong healthcare systems. The development of vaccinations, adequate nutrition, sanitations systems and related positive health advantages can improve life expectancy. Child health treatment interventions, diagnosis and employing key family practices can prevent illness and reduce deaths among children. Various effective plans and interventions need to be implemented for child health management with periodical evaluation. Various programs are implemented to address the most urgent issues of autism spectrum disorders and mental diseases affecting children. Child health programs provide necessary resources and skills to pregnant women and children at risk to improve physical, emotional and social health among families. The risk of infant or child mortality and pregnancy-related complications can be reduced through such programs by increasing quality and accessibility of preconception, prenatal, inter-conception and postnatal care. Healthy birth outcomes and early identification or treatment delays disabilities and other health conditions among infants to prevent death. Collaborative approach of health improvement by local, state and national leaders need to work together to address range of maternal and child health problems.

Online Maternal and Child Health Course at JLI

James Lind Institute (JLI) provides an online program – Advanced PG Diploma in Global Maternal & Child Health to manage child health issues. The program is eligible for a lateral entry to the full Masters in Public Health conducted jointly by James Lind Institute and Universit telematica internazionale Uninettuno, Rome ITALY.
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